Next post: How Ruby Classes are Implemented
I’m currently reading Pat Shaughnessy’s excellent book Ruby Under a Microscope, and these are notes that I’ve summarized from the chapters I’m currently going through. This post, and the next, are notes from Chapter 6, Objects and Classes. It can be a bit confusing to describe the content purely in words, but the book itself contains many helpful diagrams, so pick it up if you’re interested!
Every Ruby object is the combination of a class pointer and an array of instance variables.
- Pat Shaughnessy
A user-defined Ruby object is represented by a structure called an
RObject, and is referred to by a pointer called
RObject, there is another structure called
RBasic, which all Ruby values will have.
Aside from the
RObject also contains
numiv, a count of how many instance variables the object has,
ivptr, a pointer to an array of values of the instance variables, and
iv_index_tbl, which is a pointer to a hash table stored in the object’s associated
RClass structure that maps the name/identity of each instance variable to its position in the
class Fruit attr_accessor :colour attr_accessor :taste end apple = Fruit.new apple.colour = "red" apple.taste = "sweet" orange = Fruit.new orange.taste = "sour"
In this case, the RObject representing
apple will have a
numiv of 2, and its
ivptr will be a pointer to an array containing the values
sweet. The RObject representing
orange will have a
numiv of 1, and its
ivtpr will be a pointer to an array containing just
orange will have a
RBasic structure whose
klass pointer references the same Fruit
Generic Objects (
Generic objects such as strings and arrays are represented by more specialized versions of
RArray, etc. Their internal representations are more optimized for the kind of values they store. An example of this optimization is the presence of
ary, which is an array of a certain fixed size. This array will be used to store the values of the instance variables in the structure itself if they fit, instead of allocating memory for and referencing an external array.
They also contain the
RBasic contains a few internally-used flags and a pointer to its associated class, called
klass. Classes are represented by a
RClass structure, which is discussed in the next post.
Simple values like (small) integers,
false do not have an associated
RObject-like structure. Instead, their value is stored directly in
VALUE itself. The identity of these values are indicated by different flags in
VALUE (do not confuse the flags in
VALUE with those in
RBasic, they are different).
For example, if the
FIXNUM_FLAG is 1, then Ruby knows to intepret the rest of
VALUE as an integer value instead of a pointer address to its associated
RString etc.) structure.